The influence of SMAT processing on microstructure of copper films electroplated in steady-state, reversed impulse and stochastic regimes
In the paper we investigate the application of low-frequency mechanical processing by friction (SMAT technology) of copper films to polished polycrystalline copper in steady-state, reversed impulse and stochastic regimes. X-ray diffraction methods were used in order to reveal the influence SMAT processing on microstructure of surface layers of electroplated copper. We found broadening of diffraction peaks measured for electroplated copper, which indicates the grain refinement. The same effect is observed after SMAT processing of surfaces. But in later case this broadening is also due to appearing of microstresses inside the processed surface layers. Obtained results of x-ray analysis allow us to make following conclusions: the textured surface of copper with preferential (220) orientation appears after electroplating. The grains become misoriented again after SMAT processing of the electroplated layer.The binary Cu/Sn diffusion couples were prepared on the basis of various (electroplated and/or SMAT processed) copper substrates. It was found that the average thickness of Cu 3 Sn reaction layer formed at the reaction interface is much lower for the case of SMAT processing of the involved copper substrate.
Glaiter H. (2000). Nanostructured materials: basic concepts and microstructure. Acta Materialia, 48, 1-29.
Mazilkin A. A., Straumal B. B., Protasova S. G. (2007). Structural changes in aluminum alloys with intensive plastic deformation. FTT (FTT), 49(5), 824-829.
Wang J. T., Du Z. Z., Kang F., Chen G. (2006). Heterogeneity and anisotropy in properties of copper processed by equal channel angular pressing. Materials Science Forum, 503-504, 663-668.
Lu K., Lu J. (1999). Surface nanocrystallization (SNC) of metallic materials-presentation of the concept behind a new approach. J Mater Sci Technol, 15, 193.
Lu K., Lu J. (2004). Nanostructured surface layer on metallic materials induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 375-377, 38-45.
Zhang Y. S., Han Z., Wang K., Lu K. (2006). Friction and wear behaviors of nanocrystalline surface layer of pure copper. Wear, 260, 942-948.
Chan H. (2010). Development of SMAT and electrodeposition process for generating nanostructured materials and study of their tensile properties. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 21, 190.
Belenkyi M. A., Ivanov A. F. (1985). Electrodeposition of metal coatings: Handbook. Moscow: Metallurgy (in Rus).
Popov K. I. Djokic S. S., Nikolic N. D., Jovic V. D. (2016). Morphology of electrochemically and chemically deposited metals. Switzerland: Springer.
Medvedev A A., Semenov S. (2005). Pulsed metallization of printed circuit boards. Tekhnolohyy V Elektronnoi
romyshlennosty (Technology in the Electronic Industry), 3, 68-70.
Sheshadri B. S., Setty H. V. (1973). The effect of alternating current on the morphology of electrodeposited copper electrodeposition and surface treatment. Electrodeposition and Surface Treatment, 2(74), 223-231.
Kilimnik A. B. (2008). Electrochemical processes on direct and alternating current. Vestnik TGTU (Bulletin of TSTU), 14(4), 903-916.
Stevich Z., Raychich-Vuyasinovich M., Stoilkovich Z. (2003). Control of impulse mode in electroplating. Tekhnologiya i
onstruirovaniye v elektronnoy apparature (Technology and design in electronic equipment), 5, 51-52.
Nіkolenko Yu. V., Diduk V. A., Korol Ya. K., Lyashenko Yi. O. (2016). Development and application of the hardware and software complex in the board by the process of electrolytic deposition of copper in the mode of stochastic oscillations. Visnyk Cherkaskoho Universytetu. Seriia «Fizyko-Matematychni Nauky» (Bulletin of Cherkasy University. Series "Physics and Mathematics"), 1, 27-29.
Derev’yanko S. І., Tiutenko V. M., Korol Ya. D., Lyashenko Yi. O. (2016). Investigation of the influence of surface mechanical treatment of friction on the technology of
SMAT on the properties of electrically deposited layers of copper. Visnyk Cherkaskoho Universytetu. Seriia «Fizyko-Matematychni Nauky» (Bulletin of Cherkasy University. Series "Physics and Mathematics"), 1, 44-45.
Kapica M. (2006). Galvanic metallization in the production of printed circuit boards. Tekhnologii v elektronnoy promyshlennosti (Technologies in the electronics industry), 2, 20-24.
Yin L., Borgesen P. (2011). On the root cause of Kirkendall voiding in Cu 3 Sn. Journal of Materials Research, 26(3), 455-466.
Ushchapovs'kiy D. Yu., Lіnyucheva O. V., Donchenko M. І., Bik M. V, Tsimbalyu A. S. (2016). Manual of management of the morphology of cathode sediment on
the basis of determination of electrochemical resistance of the process of electrodeposition of copper. Naukovi Visti NTUU «KPI» (Scientific reports of NTUU "KPI"), 2, 114-121.
Rusakov A. A. (1971). X-ray of metals. Moscow: Moscow printing house (in Rus).
Shtol'ts A. K., Medvedev A. I., Kurbatov L. V. (2005). X-ray analysis of microstresses and the size of the regions of coherent scattering in polycrystalline materials. Yekaterinburg: GOU-VPO- UTTU-UPI (Yekaterinburg: GO-WEI USTU), 16-17.