PECULIARITIES OF THE NUCLEATION AND GROWTH OF THE INTERMETALLIC PHASES AT SOLDERING: AMBIGUOUS EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN MODELLING

Y. O. Liashenko

Abstract


The interactions between tin or tin-based alloys (in the solid or liquid state) with a copper substrate are reviewed. The majority of studies show that the η-Cu6Sn5  phase is a first to grow rapidly during reflow. The nucleation sequence of the intermetallics and their growth kinetics depend on the supersaturation of copper in the liquid tin droplet and on the rate of the removal of this supersaturation in the solder ball. The η phase grows by the well-known law of growth with time exponent 1/3 (interface controlled regime) or law of growth with time exponent 1/2 (volume diffusion control) but also obeys to other laws of the growth kinetics during reflow. The successful models that describe the suppression and growth of the intermetallics are reviewed. During solid-state ageing, the experimental results show that the intermetallic growth kinetics, their competition as well as voiding at the interfaces depend on the kind of the Cu substrate, namely its structure.


Keywords


soldering; nucleation; growth; phase competition; reliability

References


1. Tu K. N. Transition from flip chip solder joint to 3D IC microbump: Its effect on microstructure anisotropy / K. N. Tu, H. Y. Hsiao, C. Chen // Microelectronics Reliability. – 2013. – Vol. 53, № 1. – P. 2–6.
2. Tu K. N. Solder Joint Technology: Materials, Properties and Reliability / K. N. Tu. – New York : Springer, 2007 – 368 p.
3. Fürtauer S. The Cu–Sn phase diagram, Part I: new experimental results / S. Fürtauer, D. Li, D. Cupid, H. Flandorfer // Intermetallics. – 2013. – Vol. 34. – P. 142–147.
4. Tu K. N. Electronic Thin-Film Reliability / K. N. Tu. – New York : Cambridge University Press, 2011 – 396 p.
5. Laurila T. Interfacial reactions between lead-free solders and common base materials / T. Laurila, V. Vuorinen, J. K. Kivilahti // Materials Science and Engineering : R: Reports. – 2005. – Vol. 49. – № 1. – P. 1–60.
6. Gusak A. M. Diffusion-controlled Solid State Reactions: in Alloys, Thin Films, and Nanosystems / A. M. Gusak, T. V. Zaporozhets, Yu. O. Lyashenko, S. V. Kornienko, M. O. Pasichnyy, A. S. Shirinyan. – Berlin : Wiley-VCH, 2010 – 476 p.

7. Gagliano R. A. Nucleation kinetics of Cu6Sn5 by reaction of molten tin with a copper substrate / R. A. Gagliano, G. Ghosh, M. E. Fine // Journal of Electronic Materials. – 2002. – Vol. 31. – № 11. – P. 1195–1202.
8. Park M. S. Concurrent nucleation, formation and growth of two intermetallic compounds (Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn) during the early stages of lead free soldering / M. S. Park, R. Arróyave // Acta Materialia. – 2012. – Vol. 60. – № 3. – P. 923–934.
9. Yang M. Interfacial reactions of eutectic Sn3.5Ag and pure tin solders with Cu substrates during liquid-state soldering / M. Yang, M. Li, C. Wang // Intermetallics. – 2012. – Vol. 25. – P. 86–94.
10. Zou H. F. Morphologies, orientation relationships and evolution of Cu6Sn5 grains formed between molten Sn and Cu single crystals / H. F. Zou, H. J. Yang, Z. F. Zhang // Acta Materialia. – 2008. – Vol. 56. – № 11. – P. 2649–2662.
11. Suh J. O. Dramatic morphological change of scallop-type Cu6Sn5 formed on (001) single crystal copper in reaction between molten SnPb solder and Cu / J. O. Suh, K. N. Tu, N. Tamura // Applied Physics Letters. – 2007. – Vol. 91. – № 5. – P. 051907.
12. Suh J. O. Preferred orientation relationship between Cu6Sn5 scallop-type grains and Cu substrate in reactions between molten Sn-based solders and Cu / J. O. Suh, K. N. Tu, N. Tamura // Applied Physics Letters. – 2007. – Vol. 102. – № 6. – P. 063511.
13. Chen W. M. The orientation relationship between Ni and Cu6Sn5 formed during the soldering reaction / W. M. Chen, T. L. Yang, C. K., Chung C. R. Kao // Scripta Materialia. – 2011. – Vol. 65. – P. 331–334.
14. Suh J. O. Size distribution and morphology of Cu6Sn5 scallops in wetting reaction between molten solder and copper / J. O. Suh, K. N. Tu, G. V. Lutsenko, A. M. Gusak // Acta Materialia. – 2008. – Vol. 56. – P. 1075–1083.
15. Gagliano R. A. Thickening kinetics of interfacial Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn layers during reaction of liquid tin with solid copper / R. A. Gagliano, M. E. Fine // Journal of Electronic Materials. – 2003. – Vol. 32. – № 12. – P. 1441–1447.
16. Huang M. L. In situ study on dissolution and growth mechanism of interfacial Cu6Sn5in wetting reaction / M. L. Huang, F. Yang, N. Zhao, Z. J. Zhang // Materials Letters. – 2015. – Vol. 139. – P. 42–45.
17. Mohd Salleh M. A. A. Rapid Cu6Sn5 growth at liquid Sn/solid Cu interfaces / M. A. A. Mohd Salleh, S. D. McDonald, H. Yasuda, A. Sugiyama, K. Nogita // Scripta Materialia. – 2015. – Vol. 100. – P. 17–20.
18. Bader S. Rapid formation of intermetallic compounds by interdiffusion in the Cu-Sn nd Ni-Sn systems / S. Bader, W. Gust, H. Hieber // Acta Metallurgica et Materialia. – 1995. – Vol. 43. – P. 329–337.
19. Görlich J. On the mechanism of the binary Cu/Sn solder reaction / J. Görlich, G. Schmitz // Applied Physics Letters. – 2005. – Vol. 86. – № 5. – P. 053106.
20. Hodaj F. Cu3Sn suppression criterion for solid copper/molten tin reaction / F. Hodaj, O. Liashenko, A. M. Gusak // Philosophical Magazine Letters – 2014. – Vol. 94. – № 4. – P. 217–224.
21. Su L. H. Interfacial reactions in molten Sn/Cu and molten In/Cu Couples / L. H. Su, Y. W. Yen, C. C. Lin, S. W. Chen // Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. – 1997. – Vol. 28. – P. 927–934.
22. Huang M. L. Size effect model on kinetics of interfacial reaction between Sn-xAgyCu solders and Cu substrate / M. L. Huang, F. Yang // Scientific Reports. – 2014. – Vol. 4. – P. 7117.
23. Gusak A. M. Kinetic theory of flux-driven ripening / A. M. Gusak, K. N. Tu // Physical Review B. – 2002. – Vol. 66. – P. 115403-16.

24. Tu K. N. Interdiffusion and reaction in bimetallic Cu-Sn thin films / K. N. Tu // Acta Metallurgica. – 1973. – Vol. 21. – P. 347–354.
25. Tu K. N. Cu/Sn interfacial reactions: thin-film case versus bulk case / K. N. Tu // Materials Chemistry and Physics. – 1996. – Vol. 46. – P. 217–223.
26. Tu K. N. Kinetics of interfacial reaction in bimetallic Cu-Sn thin Films / K. N. Tu, R. D. Thompson // Acta Metallurgica. – 1982. – Vol. 30. – P. 947 952.
27. Chopra R. Low temperature compound formation in Cu/Sn thin films / R. Chopra, M. Ohring // Thin Solid Films. – 1982. – Vol. 94. – P. 279–288.
28. Tang W. M. Solid state interfacial reactions in electrodeposited Cu/Sn couples / W. M. Tang, A. Q. He, Q. Liu, D. G. Ivey // Transactions of nonferrous metals society of China. – 2010. – Vol. 20. – P. 90–96.
29. Paul A. Intermetallic growth and Kirkendall effect manifestations in Cu/Sn and Au/Sn diffusion couples / A. Paul, A. A. Kodentsov, F. J. van Loo // Zeitschrift fuer Metallkunde. – 2004. – Vol. 95. – № 10. – P. 913–920.
30. Onishi M. Reaction diffusion in the Cu - Sn system / M. Onishi, H. Fujibuchi // The Japan Institute of Metals. – 1975. – Vol. 16. – P. 539–548.
31. Lee T. Y. Morphology, kinetics, and thermodynamics of solid-state aging of eutectic SnPb and Pb-free solders (Sn–3.5Ag, Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu and Sn 0.7Cu) on Cu / T. Y. Lee, W. J. Choi, K. N. Tu, J. W. Jang, S. M. Kuo, J. K. Lin, D. R. Frear, K. Zeng, J. K. Kivilahti // Journal of Materials Research. – 2002. – Vol. 17. – № 2. – P. 291–301.
32. Labie R. Solid state diffusion in Cu-Sn and Ni-Sn diffusion couples with flip-chip scale dimensions / R. Labie, W. Ruythooren, J. Van Humbeeck // Intermetallics. – 2007. – Vol. 15. – P. 396–403.
33. Vianco P. T. Solid state intermetallic compound growth between copper and high temperature, tin-rich solders part I: experimental analysis / P. T. Vianco, J. A. Rejent, P. F. Hlava // Journal of Electronic Materials. – 1994. – Vol. 23. – № 9. – P. 721–727.
34. Yu C. Suppression effect of Cu and Ag on Cu3Sn layer in solder joints / C. Yu, J. S. Chen, K. Y. Wang, J. Q. Chen, H. Lu // Journal of Material Science: Materials in Electronics. – 2013. – Vol. 24. – № 11. – P. 4630–4635.
35. Yang W. Microstructure evolution of eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints / W. Yang, R. W. Messler, L. E. Felton // Journal of Electronic Materials. – 1994. – Vol. 23. – № 8. – P. 765–772.
36. Zeng K. Kirkendall void formation in eutectic SnPb solder joints on bare Cu and its effect on joint reliability / K. Zeng // Journal of Applied Physics. – 2005. – Vol. 97. – № 2. – P. 024508.
37. Vuorinen V. Solid-state reactions between Cu (Ni) alloys and Sn / V. Vuorinen, T. Laurila, T. Mattila, E. Heikinheimo, J. K. Kivilahti // Journal of Electronic Materials. – 2007. – Vol. 36. – № 10. – P. 1355–1362.
38. Hsiao H. Y. Unidirectional Growth of Microbumps on (111)-Oriented and Nanotwinned Copper / H. Y. Hsiao, C. M. Liu, H. W. Lin, T. C. Liu, C. L. Lu, Y. S. Huang, C. Chen, K. N. Tu // Science. – 2012. – Vol. 336. – № 6084. – P. 1007–1010.
39. Chiu W. L. Formation of nearly void-free Cu3Sn intermetallic joints using nanotwinned Cu metallization / W. L. Chiu, C. M. Liu, Y. S. Haung, C. Chen // Applied Physics Letters. – 2014. – Vol. 104. – № 17. – P. 171902.
40. Gösele U. Growth kinetics of planar binary diffusion couples: Thin-film case versus bulk cases / U. Gösele, K. N. Tu // Journal of Applied Physics. – 1982. – Vol. 53. – № 4. – P. 3252–3260.
41. Gusak A. M. Kynetyka fazoobrazovanyia v dyffuzyonnoi zone pry vzaymnoi dyffuzyy. Obshchaia teoryia / A. M. Gusak, K. P. Gurov // Fyzyka metallov y metallovedenye. – 1982. – V. 53. – № 5. – P. 842–847.

42. d'Heurle F. M. Kinetics of formation of silicides : A review / F. M. d'Heurle, P. Gas // Journal of materials research. – 1986. – Vol. 1. – № 1. – P. 205–221.
43. Wagner C. The evaluation of data obtained with diffusion couples of binary singlephase and multiphase systems / C. Wagner // Acta Metallurgica. – 1969. – Vol. 17. – № 2. – P. 99–107.


Full Text: PDF
Archive
2013 16
2014 16
2015 16
2016 1
2017 1
2018 1
2019

1

User

Language

Journal Content

Browse